Useful Terms

Useful terms are words, phrases or technical terms frequently used in our industry. These terms are used by professional planners, technicians and producers involved in corporate meetings or live events.

is a connector that is similar in appearance to a 1/4-inch phone connector, but much smaller. It measures 3.5 mm in diameter and the male connector is often used on computer headphones, headset, microphones and speakers, which connect to the computer sound card.

A Definitions

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a menu of food items or a list of products or services that can be purchased separately.
a person or company that can provide or supply audio visual equipment, technical staff and labor to install, run and dismantle equipment used in a breakout, seminar, workshop or show.
electronic equipment used to display sound and or visual components for teaching, training, marketing, advertising and corporate show production.
in live event production, the (A1) is the main/primary audio engineer responsible for the technical design of the sound system and often the engineer for mixing the live sound for the corporate meeting or show. This usually includes but is not limited to the (Public Address (PA) system, microphones & specialty audio equipment).
the (A2) is second in command with audio responsibilities. Primarily responsible for microphones: testing, monitoring radio frequency (RF), placing mics on talent/speakers and musical instruments. The A2 can sub for the A1 and assists the A1 to load-in, balance, monitor, maintain and strike the sound system.
in image projection, it is an attribute that describes the proportional relationship between the width of an image and the height of an image or a screen.
the branch of physics that deals with the study or science of sound wave behavior. The effects of these sound waves in terms of production, control, transmission & reflection to produce distinct hearing.
in live events, ADA standards prohibit the discrimination against individuals with disabilities in public areas. For example: doorway access, wheelchair seating, aisle spacing, stage access etc.
1.) a pre-order for a product, or service made or booked prior to the meeting or event.
2.) an order for a product or service that is made before a product is available for purchase.

B Definitions

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1.) behind-the-scenes kitchen area in a restaurant not seen by guests of a hotel.
2.) in corporate meetings the backstage area that functions as a control area for video playback, graphics production, teleprompter, sound monitoring etc.
in corporate meetings, a painted cloth, drape, projection image, panel or scenic element hung at the back of the stage or set as part of the scenery.
a light source or type of illumination placed behind an actor, subject, speaker, object or stage to separate these elements from the background.
is an advanced x-ray technology used at some airports in security. The technology has the ability to create a detailed outline where scanners can detect plastic explosives, illicit drugs or nonmetallic weapons made of ceramic or other material.
a device or plate, wall or screen which can deflect, prevent or regulate the spread or passage of sound, light or liquid in a particular direction.
a large room often found in hotels which can be used for: foodservice, dancing, conducting a corporate meeting, staging production and entertainment.
popular in the car audio world, it is a sealed enclosure with an acoustical filter in the front of it that serves to limit the upper end of the driver’s frequency response, and it can pass a great deal of output through a small opening.
an electric circuit or device that will allow signals between two specific frequencies to pass and it will discriminate against signals at other frequencies. Band-pass filters are used primarily in in wireless transmitters & receivers.
a frequency or radio band is an interval in the frequency world, delimited by a lower or upper range of frequencies.

C Definitions

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1.) an insulated wire or wires having a protective casing and used for transmitting electricity or telecommunication signals.
2.) also a thick rope of wire or fiber (non-metallic), used in construction, towing vehicles or mooring ships.
a specified brand name of liquor that a customer requests by name in a restaurant, as opposed to a less expensive house brand generically referred to as: gin & tonic, vodka & cranberry, scotch and soda.
is when a stage managers “calls” the sound, lighting, video graphics, automation, specialty cues or scene cues for a show. These cues are what controls everything that happens in a technical sense on stage.
Cancellation Clause – a provision clause is part of an insurance policy that permits an insurer or an insurance company to cancel a property, or event or policy before its expiration date. It will often spell out penalties, if cancellation occurs.
1.) the ability of a system to store an electric charge.
2.) the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
a device used to store an electric charge that consists of one or more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator.
is how much information defines an image. There are two types of resolution, spatial and temporal. 1.) Spatial defines how many pixels are used to make up a single image. Common spatial resolutions for HD are 1920×1080 and 1280×720. Temporal defines how many images per second are displayed. 2.) Common temporal resolutions for HD are 24, 25, 30, 50 and 60 frames per second.
This is also called drayage or haulage. The act or charge for transporting goods for short distances, such as within a commercial area or town.
Generally considered a middle ground between business formal wear and street wear. Attire is usually relaxed and informal, but its definition can vary widely among different organizations. Examples for men are casual trousers or khaki slacks paired with a button-down. For women a blouse paired with slacks or a semi-dressy skirt.

D Definitions

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work performed on overtime, usually at a rate that is twice the standard cost.
turning on/off pulses into analog sound. CD players have DACs built in. Separate DACs can upgrade a CD player or other digital music player/recorder or can be used with dedicated CD transports.
is a quantity which defines how quickly an amplifier can stop a reproduced frequency such as a bass note. The higher the damping factor, the better the amp can control the woofer and help reduce overhang distortion. The damping factor of an amplifier is mostly dependent on the quality of the power supply which feeds the power amp.
any material added to the interior of a speaker enclosure to absorb sound and reduce out-of-phase reflection to the driver diaphragm (cone). Usually acoustic fiberglass, polyester batting, or Polyfill is used in speaker enclosures.
1.) a vinyl floor covering, usually kept on a plastic or cardboard tube, which is rolled out and taped to the ballroom floor to create a surface suitable for dance. Dance floor should be left to adjust to room temperature before being taped otherwise it may not lay flat.
2.) a wooden floor which is either naturally springy or has been constructed with rubber pads under it which absorb impact to create a surface which dancers can use.
the process of removing lights & cabling from flying bars or grids when returning the venue to its normal state.
temporary post used during installation to help support the weight of an overhead structure.
(1.) a logarithmic scale used to denote a change in the relative strength of an electric signal or acoustic wave. It is a standard unit for expressing the ratio between power and power level. Using the logarithmic relationship for power PdB = 10*log[Pout/Pin] , a doubling of electrical power only yields an increase of +3 dB. Increasing the power tenfold will yield an increase of +10 dB and is a doubling of perceived loudness. The decibel is not an absolute measurement, but indicates the relationship or ratio between two signal levels.

(2.) SPL (sound pressure level) can be measured in dB. 0 dB represents the threshold of normal human hearing, 130 dB represents the threashold for pain, 140 dB causes irreparable hearing damage, and 150 dB can cause instant deafness, anything greater than about 192 dB can kill you.

a professional or company that provides services for a trade show and its exhibitors, i.e., carpets, pipe & drape and labor.

E Definitions

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a means of eliminating echo from an audio path involves first recognizing the originally transmitted signal that re-appears, with some delay, in the transmitted or received signal. Once the echo is recognized, it can be removed by subtracting it from the transmitted or received signal.
a hotel room that includes a kitchen.
the loudspeaker parameter that shows the level of sound output when measured at a prescribed distance with a standard level of electrical energy fed into the speaker (usually recorded as XdB @ 2.83V input signal from 1 meter of distance. However, a driver with a high efficiency rating needs a larger box to play a lower frequency than a driver with a lower efficiency rating.
cue for lighting and video system combined.
an electrical disturbance caused by an electromagnetic field, either low frequency or radio frequency (RF). is the interference caused by one electrical or electronic device to another by the electromagnetic fields set up by its operation.
uses active circuitry in addition to passive to filter unwanted signals for each driver. Usually active filters are employed as LPF(Low Pass Filters) for subwoofers or for the sub out of a preamp / receiver.
person who presides over the program.
(see electromagnetic interference.)
a signal that has been compressed into another form to reduce size or complexity, as in a composite video signal. to convert (something, such as a body of information) from one system of communication into another.

F Definitions

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short for food and beverage. In a hotel all kind of food and all kind of beverage is F&B.
a person who asks clever questions to tease out opinions and ideas within the group, making sure the audience stays fully absorbed and entertained.
trips organized by travel providers with the purpose of educating about their products & services and promoting them.
a wait staff delivers large platters of food to each table of guests, and each guest serves him or herself.
1.) unwanted noise caused by the loop of an audio system’s output back to its input.
2.) in a control system, data supplied to give an indication of status, i.e., on or off. occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can then be said to feed back into itself.
a technology that uses flexible strands of glass that are slightly thicker than a human hair, that transmit light and allows data to be sent faster over greater distances.
one half of a video frame, containing every other line of information. Each standard video frame contains two interlaced fields. Two fields create one video frame. Each field contains a set of alternating lines of horizontal resolution running across the screen.
1.) Multimedia Filter is a digital effect added to an image, video clip, or audio track.
2.) Email Filter or “rules” that automatically filter messages to specific folders within your email
curtain that provides a barrier between the stage and auditorium in the event of a fire. The curtain prevents the heat, smoke and flame from a fire on stage from affecting an audience while the auditorium is evacuated. Fire curtains may also be used to restrict access between the stage and auditorium or as a noise barrier.

G Definitions

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is a rating for all ages.
a heavy cotton cloth pressure-sensitive tape with strong adhesive, widely used in theater, photography, film and television production, and industrial staging work.
1.) electronic signal amplification.
2.) camera setting that allows the video signal to be altered to increase the apparent brightness or exposure of a digital video signal.
a festive occasion or a lavish social event usually with entertainment or a speaker.
a thickness or diameter of a wire.
a session to which all conference attendees are invited.
a plate or screen that is placed in front of a spotlight in order to project an image.
the appearance of a ghost or secondary image on a television or other display screen.
create visual concepts, to communicate ideas that inspire, inform or captivate audiences.

H Definitions

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an exposition facility or the exhibit area within a facility.
musical, of or relating to musical harmony, pleasing to the ear.
is the presence of frequencies in the output of a device that are not present in the input signal.
creating an unobtrusive, homogeneous cloud intended primarily to reveal lighting beams. This effect is produced by using a hazer.
effects machine similar to a fog machine, designed to produce an unobtrusive, homogeneous clouds suspended in the air intended primarily to make light beans visible or create a subtle diffusion.
a form of digital copy protection developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio & video content as it travels across connections.
a trademark and brand name for a digital interface used to transmit audio and video data in a single cable.
a television display technology that provides picture quality similar to 35 mm. movies with sound quality similar to that of today’s compact disc.
the actual number of guests attending an event.

I Definitions

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a technique that uses one or more cameras, projectors and screens to enlarge an image of a speaker to give a better view to the audience.
the sense that a voice or instrument is in a particular place in the room.
in electrical devices, refers to the amount of opposition faced by direct or alternating current when it passes through a conductor component, circuit or system.
the art or act of improvising, or of composing, executing, or arranging anything without previous preparation.
Theater-in-the-Round is a form of theatrical presentation in which the audience is seated in a circle around the stage. Popular seating for Corporate Meetings and Events.
minor expenditures associated with business travel.
includes everything that has to be paid.
the behavior of a coil of wire in resisting any change of electric current through the coil.
also known as a Corporate Event, is any form of event, hospitality or social activity which is organized or funded by a business entity with a target audience including, but not limited to: employees, board members, stakeholders, customers, clients and potential clients.

J Definitions

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an outer sheath that protects the wire or cable core from mechanical, moisture and chemical issues.
a temporary sleep problem that can affect anyone who quickly travels across multiple time zones.
1.) a portable set terminal for power cables.
2.) generally, metal or plastic boxes where wire and/or cable terminates, combines, or splits; used to protect the conductors.

K Definitions

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a special effect in which a lightweight fabric is dropped swiftly from above to conceal or reveal your product, space, or performer.
a presentation software application developed as a part of the iWork productivity suite by Apple Inc.
person who delivers a speech that sets out the central theme of a conference.

L Definitions

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wireless microphone that can be affixed to a presenter, also known as a lavalier microphone or pendant microphone.
a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the simulated emission.
wireless microphone that can be affixed to a presenter, also known as a lapel microphone or pendant microphone.
also known as lighting designers, they create and manage all aspects of lighting for a production, working well with the artistic and production staff to support the director’s plans for the production.
office or position of a leader who recently assumed the leadership of the company.
the setting of a light or sound control channel. On a lighting desk, levels range from 0% to 100%, on a sound desk, the bottom of the fader is ∞ (infinity) and the top may be +20.
a display and lighting technology used to create ambient lighting.
the process of recording information about each lighting state either onto paper or into the memory of a computerized lighting board for subsequent playback.
an exhibit that is set up along an aisle; also called an inline display.

M Definitions

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a person that handles the security, customer service and some management concerns of an organization.
the host or head server at a restaurant who supervises other servers.
computer mapping uses the speed and versatility of computer graphics to display spatial data.
a large tent, usually without some or all sides, used during outdoor events.
familiar technique in computer graphics, it basically refers to a method of hiding or filtering data.
fabric used to cover storage or other areas that should not be displayed.
an account set up to which authorized charges incurred by a group can be charged.
one key that opens all doors, including guest rooms and facility spaces.
an electronic device with multiple inputs and outputs, it allows any input to be connected to any one, several, or all of the outputs.

N Definitions

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a person who delivers a commentary accompanying a movie, broadcast, piece of music, etc.
the number of rows of horizontal and vertical pixels that create a picture. It describes the actual resolution of the imaging device and not the resolution of the delivery signal.
the space around and between the subject(s) of an image.
to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter.
total square feet of booth space at an exposition facility.
the exchange of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions for the cultivation of productive relationships for employment or business.
an expected guest who does not attend; reservation is not used and is not cancelled.

O Definitions

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a range of tones where the highest tone occurs at twice the frequency of the lowest tone.
a period of the year when demand for a destination decreases and prices go down.
person or company who prepares and delivers food.
company, appointed by show management, that provides services to a trade show and/or its exhibitors; also called general contractor.
a movement towards the nearest side of the stage from the center also the area out of sight of the audience.
a unit of electrical resistance or impedance.
describes the shape of the area for microphones that have equal sensitivity to sound from nearly all directions.
On-Site Caterer – person or company who prepares food at a facility.
typically attached to the venue with a home kitchen located in the building and they will do all the prep and cooking on the site.

P Definitions

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the speed at which presenters deliver their speeches. The pacing of the show can have a real effect on how the audience react to it.
a form that authorizes cash withdraws which will be charged to a master account or guest.
referring to a pre-made exhibit composed of connected rectangular panels of various sizes.
uses inductors (coils) and capacitors to direct proper frequencies to appropriate drivers.
a device that looks just like an ordinary driver, except it has no magnet or voice coil. A radiator is usually a highly compliant device, with a similar cone material and surround found on regular active drivers.
refers to when each guest pays own charges.
the maximum amplitude of a voltage or current.
also known as high season, when travel is most active and rates are at their highest.
wireless microphone that can be affixed to a lapel of a speaker, also known as a Lapel Microphone or Lavalier Microphone.
a registration that is not complete due to lack of payment or completed forms.

Q Definitions

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a part of a meeting where participants can ask a panel questions and they are then answered by the experts in that field.
four electrical outlets in one box.
guest room for four people, usually with two or more beds.
1.) the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.
2.) a distinctive attribute or characteristic possessed by someone or something.
guest room with a queen-size bed, for one or two people.

R Definitions

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refers to movies that have been given a “restricted” rating by the film rating systems. Restricted meaning anyone under 17 of age requires accompanying parent or adult guardian.
a facility’s standard guest room rate.
specializing in radio or associated with the radio industry.
generally refers to signals such as radio and TV broadcast signals, or radio frequency control signals; the range of frequencies used for electrical transmission.
tendency of a radio transmission to interfere with other electronic signals. Radio frequency energy is radiated by all electrical equipment – when it is a strong enough signal it becomes interference in audio systems.
the most common computer memory used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on. This is an integrated circuit memory chip that allows information to be stored or accessed in any order and from all storage locations that are equally accessible.
the scanned or illuminated area of a CRT(cathode-ray tube). Computer graphics can be created as either raster or vector images. Raster graphics are bitmaps. A bitmap is a grid of individual pixels that collectively compose an image. Raster graphics render images as a collection of countless tiny squares. Each square, or pixel, is coded in a specific hue or shade.
the comparison of two quantities.
an initial read-through of the script of a show, with speakers and creative team. It allows the whole team to become familiar with the script, and each other in a non-threatening environment.

S Definitions

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a high-resolution digital audio format developed by Sony and Philips. Instead of using PCM audio encoding like standard CDs, SACDs use Direct Stream Digital (DSD) encoding. DSD is a 1-bit technology that samples music at the rate of 2.82 million times per second, compared to standard CD’s rate of 44,100 times per second. SACDs typically sound more detailed than standard CDs, with greater dynamic range, and are mastered separately from the often-compressed CDs.
reports to the Director of Sales at a facility; directly involved in the selling of hotel rooms.
how fast a digital recorder or player samples a signal. CD, DCC and Minidisc use a rate of 44.1kHz – i.e. 44,100 samples per second – while DATrecorders offer a choice of 48kHz or 44.1kHz, and Digital Audio Broadcasting will work on 32kHz.
a small speaker with limited bass response, often designed to be used with a matching subwoofer.
entertainment or business video and audio transmitted via a satellite.
feature in a display device that changes the size of an image without changing its shape. Scaling may be required when the image size does not fit the display device.
the process of changing the horizontal scan rate of one device to that of another. Usually used to describe changing the scan rate of a computer to match the television (NTSC/PAL/SECAM) video format for the purpose of recording or viewing on television video equipment.
the frequency of occurrence of a display drawing one line of information. A measure of how quickly a display is able to redraw an image. The higher the scan rate, the steadier the image appears. It is commonly displayed in kHz or Hz and has a vertical and horizontal value.
when light hits a textured surface, the incoming light waves get reflected in multiple angles because the surface is uneven.
is set up whereas tables are set in rows with chairs all facing the stage or podium; also called Classroom Seating.

T Definitions

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guest’s assigned seat at a specified table.
stationary microphone set up at a table.
a folded card on a table used to indicate table number or other information.
a display used to promote or inform, that is small enough to be placed on a table or stand.
an individual that is hired as a special guest to come on to the show or meeting to greet, speak, or perform during the meeting.
connections to the transformer windings allowing you to select different power levels from the transformer.
1.) show management sets a date for when they would like something to be completed.
2.) a date that the trade show management puts in place to let vendors know when their freights and shipments can arrive on site.
something that will be announced at a later date.
something that will be determined at a later date.

U Definitions

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tables set up in a U shape with chairs arranged around the perimeter.
transmits the audio signal on a single conductor that is referenced to ground.
derived from the number 1, unity gain refers to no change in gain.

V Definitions

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room setup whereas chairs are placed in rows forming a V-formation facing the stage or podium.
is a drape situated in the front of the grand drape, and it is usually constructed from the same material.
when the entertainment for the show or meeting is composed of multiple different acts and genres.
computer graphic images that are defined by two key points.
a special type of oscilloscope used in both audio and video applications. Whereas an oscilloscope or waveform monitor normally displays a plot of signal vs. time, a vectorscope displays an X-Y plot of two signals, which can reveal details about the relationship between these two signals.
the location in which the event is held. This can be but not limited to a hotel, ballroom, convention center, or meeting center.
this is the process in which a video is taken down in size. Or multiple videos are turned into one.
a meeting or discussion, sometimes educational informant that is held over a video signal.
this refers to the maximum angle that the center of the screen can be viewed from all areas and sides of the audience.

W Definitions

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the allotted time within a show schedule in which attendees enter the meeting and take their seats. This time is set from the time the schedule says the doors can open and the time the presentation starts.
a video or slideshow being played on the screens when the attendees walk in or out of the meeting room. These typically do not have sound attached.
music that is played while guests enter or leave a meeting room.
guest with confirmed reservation is sent to another hotel due to overbooking.
the allotted time within a show schedule in which people leave the meeting.
when a room setup is complete and the presenters or show coordinators do a walk through to make sure everything is where it needs to be, and the room is set up correctly.
this is a meal in which the crew is told they can leave for a set amount of time, and purchase food with their own money or use their daily per diem. The food is not served in a buffet style in the ballroom.
a room where the meeting coordinators meet and plan during the show. This room is usually equipped with printers and computers for all of the last minute planning needs and changes.

X Definitions

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1.) a film or production that is considered indecent for children under 17.
2.) a pornographic film.
a popular type of audio connector featuring three leads: two for the signal and one for overall system grounding.

Y Definitions

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a video signal, also known as S-Video. Y is the luminance and C is the chrominance. Y and C are transmitted on separate synchronized conductors.

Z Definitions

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lenses that allow the operator to adjust focal length for sizing or distance.